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Identity Verification

Security feature to authenticate your external user ids and emails sent to OneSignal.

OneSignal supports a higher security method known as Identity Verification. This helps prevent users from impersonating one another by generating a user-specific token on your server, if you have one.

Enabling Identity Verification applies to:

  • Adding Email and SMS records into OneSignal AND associated tags.
  • Setting external_user_id for any record across all channels (Push, Email, SMS)

It can be enabled in the Dashboard > Settings > Keys & IDs

Once enabled or disabled, this will take up to 10 minutes to process.

We highly recommend enabling identity verification for apps and websites that use setting external_user_ids and/or Email Messaging. For apps and websites that are 'backendless' and do not run their own servers, we suggest either creating a minimal server that just verifies users, saving the OneSignal User ID records to your database, or avoid sending sensitive information in user tags and notifications.

Auth Hash Generation

Auth hashes are expected to be a HMAC on a SHA-256 of the OneSignal REST API Key and the <protected_field_value>.

Example Auth Hash Generation Code

When identity verification is enabled, OneSignal will look for a SHA-256 hash of a user's email address or external user identifier from your server. See the following code examples for how to generate these hashes on your server:

OpenSSL::HMAC.hexdigest('sha256', ONESIGNAL_API_KEY, identifier)
OpenSSL::HMAC.hexdigest('sha256', ONESIGNAL_API_KEY, email_address)
<?php
echo hash_hmac('sha256', $email_address, $ONESIGNAL_REST_API_KEY);
echo hash_hmac('sha256', $identifier, $ONESIGNAL_REST_API_KEY);
?>
const crypto = require('crypto');
const hmac = crypto.createHmac('sha256', ONESIGNAL_REST_API_KEY);
hmac.update(email_address);
// or hmac.update(identifier);
console.log(hmac.digest('hex'));

SDK setEmail Methods

Your backend can generate an email authentication token and send it to your app to include in the setEmail method.

String email = "[email protected]";
String emailAuthHash = "..."; // Email auth hash generated from your server
OneSignal.setEmail(email, emailAuthHash, new OneSignal.EmailUpdateHandler() {
  @Override
  public void onSuccess() {
    // Email successfully synced with OneSignal
  }

  @Override
  public void onFailure(OneSignal.EmailUpdateError error) {
    // Error syncing email, check error.getType() and error.getMessage() for details
  }
});
let emailAuthHash = //generated on your backend server
let email = "[email protected]";
OneSignal.setEmail(email, withEmailAuthHashToken: emailAuthHash, withSuccess: {
    //The email has successfully been set.
}) { (error) in
    //Encountered an error while setting the email.
};
NSString *hashToken = //hash token from your server
NSString *emailAddress = @"[email protected]";
[OneSignal setEmail:emailAddress withEmailAuthHashToken:hashToken onSuccess: ^() {
    //The email has successfully been set.
} onFailure: ^(NSError *error) {
    //Encountered an error while setting the email.
}];
string emailAuthToken = ""; //from your backend server

OneSignal.SetEmail("[email protected]", emailAuthToken, () => {
    //Successfully set email
}, (error) => {
    //Encountered error setting email
});
var email = "[email protected]";//email you pull from app
var sha_token = null;//pull from your server or keep as null

OneSignal.setEmail(email, sha_token, (error) => {
    //handle error if it occurred
});
let emailAuthToken = ""; //from your backend server

window.plugins.OneSignal.setEmail("[email protected]", emailAuthToken, function() {
    //Successfully set email

}, function(error) {
    //encountered an error setting email
    
});
String tokenFromServer = "";

OneSignal.shared.setEmail(email: "[email protected]", emailAuthHashToken: tokenFromServer).then((result) {
    //request succeeded
}).catchError((error) {
    //encountered an error
});
string email = "[email protected]";
string emailAuthCode = ; //generated on your backend server
OneSignal.SetEmail(email, emailAuthCode);

// Optionally, you can also use callbacks
OneSignal.Current.SetEmail(email, emailAuthCode, () => {
    //handle success
}, (error) => {
    //handle failure
});
--Not available
var emailAddress = "[email protected]";
var emailAuthHash = "..."; // Email auth hash generated from your server
OneSignal.setEmail(emailAddress, {
 emailAuthHash: emailAuthHash
});

SDK setSMSNumber Methods

Your backend can generate an SMS authentication token and send it to your app to include in the setSMSNumber method.

String smsNumber = "+123456789";
String smsAuthHash = "..."; // SMS auth hash generated from your server
OneSignal.setSMSNumber(smsNumber, smsAuthHash, new OneSignal.OSSMSUpdateHandler() {
  @Override
  public void onSuccess(JSONObject result) {
    // SMS successfully synced with OneSignal
  }

  @Override
  public void onFailure(OneSignal.OSSMSUpdateError error) {
    // Error syncing SMS, check error.getType() and error.getMessage() for details
  }
});
let smsHashToken = "..." //generated on your backend server
let smsNumber = "+123456789"
OneSignal.setSMSNumber(smsNumber, withSMSAuthHashToken: smsHashToken, withSuccess: {
    //The SMS number has successfully been set.
}) { (error) in
    //Encountered an error while setting the SMS number.
}
NSString *smsHashToken = @"..."; //generated on your backend server
NSString *smsNumber = @"+123456789";
[OneSignal setSMSNumber:smsNumber withSMSAuthHashToken:smsHashToken withSuccess:^(NSDictionary *results) {
  // SMS successfully synced with OneSignal
} withFailure:^(NSError *error) {
  // Error syncing SMS, check error.getType() and error.getMessage() for details
}];

SDK setExternalUserId Methods

Your backend can generate an email authentication token and send it to your app to include in the setExternalUserId method.

String externalUserId = "123456789"; // You will supply the external user id to the OneSignal SDK
String externalUserIdAuthHash = "..."; // Identifier auth hash generated from your server

// Setting External User Id with Callback Available in SDK Version 3.15.6+
OneSignal.setExternalUserId(externalUserId, externalUserIdAuthHash, new OneSignal.OSExternalUserIdUpdateCompletionHandler() {
  @Override
  public void onComplete(JSONObject results) {
    // The results will contain push and email success statuses
    OneSignal.onesignalLog(OneSignal.LOG_LEVEL.VERBOSE, "Set external user id done with results: " + results.toString());

    // Push can be expected in almost every situation with a success status, but
    // as a pre-caution its good to verify it exists
    if (results.has("push") && results.getJSONObject("push").has("success")) {
      boolean isPushSuccess = results.getJSONObject("push").getBoolean("success");
      OneSignal.onesignalLog(OneSignal.LOG_LEVEL.VERBOSE, "Set external user id for push status: " + isPushSuccess);
    }
    
    // Verify the email is set or check that the results have an email success status
    if (results.has("email") && results.getJSONObject("email").has("success")) {
      boolean isEmailSuccess = results.getJSONObject("email").getBoolean("success");
      OneSignal.onesignalLog(OneSignal.LOG_LEVEL.VERBOSE, "Sets external user id for email status: " + isEmailSuccess);
    }
  }
});
let externalUserId = "123456789" // You will supply the external user id to the OneSignal SDK
let externalUserIdAuthHash = "..."; // Identifier auth hash generated from your server

// Setting External User Id with Callback Available in SDK Version 2.16.0+
OneSignal.setExternalUserId(externalUserId, externalUserIdAuthHash, withCompletion: { results in
  // The results will contain push and email success statuses
  print("External user id update complete with results: ", results!.description)
  // Push can be expected in almost every situation with a success status, but
  // as a pre-caution its good to verify it exists
  if let pushResults = results!["push"] {
    print("Set external user id push status: ", pushResults)
  }
  if let emailResults = results!["email"] {
      print("Set external user id email status: ", emailResults)
  }
})
NSString* externalUserId = @"123456789"; // You will supply the external user id to the OneSignal SDK
NSString* externalUserIdAuthHash = @"..."; // Identifier auth hash generated from your server

// Setting External User Id with Callback Available in SDK Version 2.16.0+
[OneSignal setExternalUserId:externalUserId, externalUserIdAuthHash  withCompletion:^(NSDictionary *results) {
  // The results will contain push and email success statuses
  NSLog(@"External user id update complete with results: %@", results.description);
  // Push can be expected in almost every situation with a success status, but
  // as a pre-caution its good to verify it exists
  if (results["push"] && results["push"]["success"])
    NSLog(@"Set external user id push status: %@", results["push"]["success"]);
  // Verify the email is set or check that the results have an email success status
  if (results["email"] && results["email"]["success"])
    NSLog(@"Set external user id email status: %@", results["email"]["success"]);
}];
// Setting External User Id with Callback
string externalUserId = "123456789"; // You will supply the external user id to the OneSignal SDK
String externalUserIdAuthHash = "..."; // Identifier auth hash generated from your server

// Setting External User Id with Callback Available in SDK Version 2.13.2+
OneSignal.Current.SetExternalUserId(externalUserId, externalUserIdAuthHash, OneSignalSetExternalUserId);

// Removing External User Id with Callback Available in SDK Version 2.12.0+
//OneSignal.Current.RemoveExternalUserId(OneSignalSetExternalUSerId);

//Callback available in SDK Version 2.12.0+
private static void OneSignalSetExternalUserId(Dictionary<string, object> results)
{
  // The results will contain push and email success statuses
  Debug.WriteLine("External user id updated with results: " + Json.Serialize(results));
  // Push can be expected in almost every situation with a success status, but
  // as a pre-caution its good to verify it exists
  if (results.ContainsKey("push"))
  {
    Dictionary<string, object> pushStatusDict = results["push"] as Dictionary<string, object>;
    if (pushStatusDict.ContainsKey("success"))
    {
      Debug.WriteLine("External user id updated for push with results: " + pushStatusDict["success"] as string);
    }
  }
  // Verify the email is set or check that the results have an email success status
  if (results.ContainsKey("email"))
  {
    Dictionary<string, object> emailStatusDict = results["email"] as Dictionary<string, object>;
    if (emailStatusDict.ContainsKey("success"))
    {
      Debug.WriteLine("External user id updated for email with results: " + emailStatusDict["success"] as string);
    }
  }
}
let externalUserId = '123456789'; // You will supply the external user id to the OneSignal SDK
let externalUserIdAuthHash = "..."; // Identifier auth hash generated from your server

// Setting External User Id with Callback Available in SDK Version 3.9.3+
OneSignal.setExternalUserId(externalUserId, externalUserIdAuthHash, (results) => {
  // The results will contain push and email success statuses
  console.log('Results of setting external user id');
  console.log(results);
  
  // Push can be expected in almost every situation with a success status, but
  // as a pre-caution its good to verify it exists
  if (results.push && results.push.success) {
    console.log('Results of setting external user id push status:');
    console.log(results.push.success);
  }
  
  // Verify the email is set or check that the results have an email success status
  if (results.email && results.email.success) {
    console.log('Results of setting external user id email status:');
    console.log(results.email.success);
  }
});
let externalUserId = '123456789'; // You will supply the external user id to the OneSignal SDK
let externalUserIdAuthHash = "..."; // Identifier auth hash generated from your server

// Setting External User Id with Callback Available in SDK Version 2.11.2+
OneSignal.setExternalUserId(externalUserId, externalUserIdAuthHash, (results) => {
  // The results will contain push and email success statuses
  console.log('Results of setting external user id');
  console.log(results);
  
  // Push can be expected in almost every situation with a success status, but
  // as a pre-caution its good to verify it exists
  if (results.push && results.push.success) {
    console.log('Results of setting external user id push status:');
    console.log(results.push.success);
  }
  
  // Verify the email is set or check that the results have an email success status
  if (results.email && results.email.success) {
    console.log('Results of setting external user id email status:');
    console.log(results.email.success);
  }
});
let externalUserId = "123456789" // You will supply the external user id to the OneSignal SDK
let externalUserIdAuthHash = "..."; // Identifier auth hash generated from your server

// Setting External User Id with Callback Available in SDK Version 2.6.2+
OneSignal.shared.setExternalUserId(externalUserId, externalUserIdAuthHash);
// Setting External User Id with Callback
string externalUserId = "123456789"; // You will supply the external user id to the OneSignal SDK
String externalUserIdAuthHash = "..."; // Identifier auth hash generated from your server

// Setting External User Id with Callback Available in SDK Version 3.8.0+
OneSignal.Current.SetExternalUserId(externalUserId, externalUserIdAuthHash, OneSignalSetExternalUserId);

// Removing External User Id with Callback Available in SDK Version 3.8.0+
//OneSignal.Current.RemoveExternalUserId(OneSignalSetExternalUSerId);

//Callback available in SDK Version 3.10.3+
private static void OneSignalSetExternalUserId(Dictionary<string, object> results)
{
  // The results will contain push and email success statuses
  Debug.WriteLine("External user id updated with results: " + Json.Serialize(results));
  // Push can be expected in almost every situation with a success status, but
  // as a pre-caution its good to verify it exists
  if (results.ContainsKey("push"))
  {
    Dictionary<string, object> pushStatusDict = results["push"] as Dictionary<string, object>;
    if (pushStatusDict.ContainsKey("success"))
    {
      Debug.WriteLine("External user id updated for push with results: " + pushStatusDict["success"] as string);
    }
  }
  // Verify the email is set or check that the results have an email success status
  if (results.ContainsKey("email"))
  {
    Dictionary<string, object> emailStatusDict = results["email"] as Dictionary<string, object>;
    if (emailStatusDict.ContainsKey("success"))
    {
      Debug.WriteLine("External user id updated for email with results: " + emailStatusDict["success"] as string);
    }
  }
}
let externalUserId = "123456789" // You will supply the external user id to the OneSignal SDK
let externalUserIdAuthHash = "..."; // Identifier auth hash generated from your server


OneSignal.push(function() {
  OneSignal.setExternalUserId(externalUserId, externalUserIdAuthHash);
});

Updating Devices with REST API

If you enabled Identity Verification and call the Add a device or Edit device endpoint (api/v1/players), the request must contain the external_user_id_auth_hash or identifier_auth_hash parameters.

If you are adding or updating the external_user_id on a a non-email device (device_type != 11), you must use the external_user_id_auth_hash parameter.

If you are adding or updating the email (identifier parameter && device_type = 11), then any field being updated will need the identifier_auth_hash (or email_auth_hash for backwards compatibility) value.

Removing External User ID

To remove an external_user_id from a device record with Identity Verification enabled, you can set it to an empty string with the auth hash based on the existing external_user_id value before removal.

Updated 15 days ago


What's Next

Email Quickstart

Identity Verification


Security feature to authenticate your external user ids and emails sent to OneSignal.

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